Friday, May 22, 2020

Balance of Payments and its Equilibrium Free Essay Example, 2500 words

In theory, the total between the current and financial accounts is zero (Wang, 2009, p. 80; Van den Berg, 2010, p. 67; Snowdon and Vane, 2002, p. 28). This only means that adding these two components should zero each other out. However, this is not usually met in the real world considering the point that the current account will either reach a point of deficit or surplus. If they cannot balance each other, the official reserves will be to the rescue in order to obtain the balance. However, theoretically, the BOP will always reach its balance. The surplus in BOP corresponds to the current account surplus (Daniels and VanHoose, 2012, p. 164; Moosa, 2012, p. 16; Glanville and Glanville, 2011, p. 384). The BOP deficit also implies current account deficit (Tragakes, 2011, p. 400; Wang, 2009, Reddy, 2004, p. 42). If the deficit takes place in the current account, the BOP deficit is therefore remarkable. This implies that there is an excess of the domestic currency. In another way of sayin g it, the domestic currency is losing its value. This further means that the government is buying its own currency and it is selling foreign currency (Levi, 2009, p. 157; Carbaugh, 2013, p. 406; Somanath, 2011, p. 52). We will write a custom essay sample on Balance of Payments and its Equilibrium or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page As stated and from an accounting perspective, BOP leads the current and capital accounts to zero when added up together. Concerning this, there must be no significant impact on the exchange rate (Charusheela, 2013, p. 142).

Friday, May 8, 2020

Aztec Religion the Foundation of a Civilization - 1456 Words

The religion of the Aztec, including their beliefs, customs and religions, acted as a tremendous influence on their government, economy, and culture. Religion was the foundation for the infamous culture of the Aztec Civilization. Through ceremonies of sacrifice, and the infusion of cosmology into their religion, the Aztecs sculpted a culture unlike that of any other civilization, and left behind a legacy to be studied and admired for generations to come. Religion ultimately shaped the unique civilization of the Aztecs, through cultivating the general outlook and values of the Aztecs, expanding the empire, and influencing the architecture and layout of their city. Sacrificial rituals acted as an important factor to the economy of their†¦show more content†¦The first being political political: the subjugation of enemy city states in order expand the empire and demonstrate power and superiority. The second objective was religious and socioeconomic: the taking of captives to be sacrificed in religious ceremonies. According to Friar Diego Durà ¡n’s accounts of the Aztec civilization, Tlacaelel - a king of the Aztec Empire - arranged with leaders of other Pre-Columbian city states to engage in ritual battles that would provide all parties with enough sacrificial victims to appease the gods. Tlacaelel reigned over a period of great famine in the empire in year 1450. The Aztec Religion believed that Gods required sacrifices to keep all running smoothly. There were several gods that the Aztecs worshiped to for agricultural purposes, for example: Tlà ¡loc, who sends rain and nourishes maize7, Centeotl, the god of maize in general, Tet eoinnan, the god of agriculture as well as sexual fertility, and Xipe Totec, god of rituals and sacrifice8. The Aztecs believed that through worshipping certain gods, and generously providing them with a steady supply of sacrifices and blood, the gods would in return keep things balanced. When there was not enough victims, Tlacaelel resorted to these battles to collect more humans to be sacrificed. War was a dominant aspect of the Aztec civilization, and they aspired to exponentially expand their empire through military conquest, while also collecting tribute from theShow MoreRelatedRamon Astorga. Professor Sarhadi. History 101. 02 March1577 Words   |  7 PagesHistory 101 02 March 2014 The Aztec Empire The Aztec civilization was the most dominate complex society in Mesoamerica of all time. The Aztecs were an innovative and sophisticated civilization that became superior due to their elaborate engineered cities, pyramids, and temples. Their proficiency in trade, expertise in agriculture, religious traditions, organized government, and progressive technology set a firm foundation for the distinguished Aztec empire. The Aztecs, arrived in Mesoamerica in theRead MoreRamon Astorga. Professor . History 101. 06 March 2014.906 Words   |  4 PagesHistory 101 06 March 2014 The Aztec Empire The Aztec civilization was the most dominate complex society in Mesoamerica of all time. The Aztecs were an innovative and sophisticated civilization that became superior due to their elaborate engineered cities, pyramids, and temples. Their proficiency in trade, expertise in agriculture, religious traditions, organized government, and progressive technology set a firm foundation for the distinguished Aztec empire. The Aztecs, arrived in Mesoamerica in theRead MoreCultural Influences Of Mexico And Aztecs1480 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout the period of the 1st to 16th century, Mexico experienced the emergence and rise of powerful civilizations such as the Teotihuacan, Toltec and ultimately, the greatest empire, Aztec. Many cultural and economic practices of these Mexican civilizations were borrowed from the prior civilization, adapted, and then further developed upon and while many aspects of these practices stayed the same through this time, significant changes occurred as well. The term culture is definedRead MoreThe Aztecs Werelocated In Mexico, Built On A Series Of1180 Words   |  5 PagesThe aztecs were located in Mexico, Built on a series of islets in Lake Texcoco , and was divided in four cities. Itzcoatl successor Montezuma who took power in 1440 By the early 16th century founded in 1428. (found in the 13th century) Mexico-Tenochtitlan, commonly known as Tenochtitlan was a Mexica located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico.Aztec Economy Trade and Currency. the aztec trade everything, it was really important to them they relied heavily on agriculture and farmingRead MoreAztecs Cosmology916 Words   |  4 PagesThe Aztecs cosmology was a unique combination of mythology. Their beliefs about themselves and their purpose were not something they took lightly. â€Å"The mystic-militaristic approach characteristic of Aztec religion†¦felt that the purpose of man’s creation was to provide blood for the maintenanc e of the Sun’s life† (Leon-Portilla, Aztec Thought Culture, 122). With this perspective of themselves, the Aztecs believed that human sacrifice was not only justified but necessary for the lives of civilizationRead MoreImpact of the Spanish Conquest on the Aztecs. Essay example1418 Words   |  6 PagesThe Aztecs, part of modern day Mexico, were once the epitome of fine culture. They began their rule of southern and central Mexico during the 14th century and practiced an incredibly wealthy lifestyle. Nonetheless, this rule began to deteriorate when Spanish explorers disembarked at Tabasco and Vera Cruz on April 21st 1519. When the Spanish voyagers first arrived, they were welcomed warmly, respectfully and received Godlike treatment. Montezuma, the ruler at that time, believed that the SpanishRead MoreThe Aztec Empire1922 Words   |  8 Pages The Aztec empire was located in central Mexico. In approximately 1200 A.D. is when the civilization was started. Thei r capital was the city called Tenochtitlan. Their economy wasn’t very good in the beginning. The Aztecs weren’t able to support themselves since their village was so small. The Aztecs did their farming in a method of agriculture called chinampa. This was a method of agriculture used throughout all of Mesoamerica. Soon their population grew began to grow. Their economy dependedRead MoreThe Rise of the Aztec Empire Essay2407 Words   |  10 PagesThe Aztec Empire of the 14th and 15th centuries was one of the most successful and powerful Mesoamerican kingdoms at that time. The community of people began in the middle of a lake and eventually became the capital of an empire. The Aztecs were comprised of multi ethnic and multi lingual individuals that lived in a large area that stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf coast and housed over fifteen million people (Schmal). Their ability to be successful and have a powerful dominance in theirRead MoreNative American Civ ilization : The Aztec, Or Mexicas Essay3157 Words   |  13 PagesOne of the first societies to ever mandate education was the Aztec, or Mexicas, which allowed children of any social stature to be educated, ^ possible input in of a dash rather than a comma including slave children. It is hard to imagine that this grand empire is highly associated with their practices in human sacrifice. When the Spanish invaded and took over, many believed that the Aztecs will killed ^were killed by this ^the Spanish conquest, but ^;but, the truth is that illnesses brought by theRead MoreAztec s And The Aztec Civilization1989 Words   |  8 Pagesthe Aztec. The Aztec’s human sacrifice was a brutal bloodshed. (Pennock 277) The Aztec civilization was a solid and powerful foundation. The Aztec’s dominated northern Mexico during the 16th century, during that time was also the Spanish conquest with Hernan Cortes. The Aztec’s were bodacious warriors. The Aztec’s had a well organized agricultural economy even the Spaniards were impressed and could not wait to take over Mexico. The Spanish knew this could not happen right away with the Aztec being

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Game of Thrones Chapter Thirty-four Free Essays

string(40) " Waynwoods were ever ones for ceremony\." Catelyn My lady, you should have sent word of your coming,† Ser Donnel Waynwood told her as their horses climbed the pass. â€Å"We would have sent an escort. The high road is not as safe as it once was, for a party as small as yours. We will write a custom essay sample on A Game of Thrones Chapter Thirty-four or any similar topic only for you Order Now † â€Å"We learned that to our sorrow, Ser Donnel,† Catelyn said. Sometimes she felt as though her heart had turned to stone; six brave men had died to bring her this far, and she could not even find it in her to weep for them. Even their names were fading. â€Å"The clansmen harried us day and night. We lost three men in the first attack, and two more in the second, and Lannister’s serving man died of a fever when his wounds festered. When we heard your men approaching, I thought us doomed for certain.† They had drawn up for a last desperate fight, blades in hand and backs to the rock. The dwarf had been whetting the edge of his axe and making some mordant jest when Bronn spotted the banner the riders carried before them, the moon-and-falcon of House Arryn, sky-blue and white. Catelyn had never seen a more welcome sight. â€Å"The clans have grown bolder since Lord Jon died,† Ser Donnel said. He was a stocky youth of twenty years, earnest and homely, with a wide nose and a shock of thick brown hair. â€Å"If it were up to me, I would take a hundred men into the mountains, root them out of their fastnesses, and teach them some sharp lessons, but your sister has forbidden it. She would not even permit her knights to fight in the Hand’s tourney. She wants all our swords kept close to home, to defend the Vale . . . against what, no one is certain. Shadows, some say.† He looked at her anxiously, as if he had suddenly remembered who she was. â€Å"I hope I have not spoken out of turn, my lady. I meant no offense.† â€Å"Frank talk does not offend me, Ser Donnel.† Catelyn knew what her sister feared. Not shadows, Lannisters, she thought to herself, glancing back to where the dwarf rode beside Bronn. The two of them had grown thick as thieves since Chiggen had died. The little man was more cunning than she liked. When they had entered the mountains, he had been her captive, bound and helpless. What was he now? Her captive still, yet he rode along with a dirk through his belt and an axe strapped to his saddle, wearing the shadowskin cloak he’d won dicing with the singer and the chainmail hauberk he’d taken off Chiggen’s corpse. Two score men flanked the dwarf and the rest of her ragged band, knights and men-at-arms in service to her sister Lysa and Jon Arryn’s young son, and yet Tyrion betrayed no hint of fear. Could I be wrong? Catelyn wondered, not for the first time. Could he be innocent after all, of Bran and Jon Arryn and all the rest? And if he was, what d id that make her? Six men had died to bring him here. Resolute, she pushed her doubts away. â€Å"When we reach your keep, I would take it kindly if you could send for Maester Colemon at once. Ser Rodrik is feverish from his wounds.† More than once she had feared the gallant old knight would not survive the journey. Toward the end he could scarcely sit his horse, and Bronn had urged her to leave him to his fate, but Catelyn would not hear of it. They had tied him in the saddle instead, and she had commanded Marillion the singer to watch over him. Ser Donnel hesitated before he answered. â€Å"The Lady Lysa has commanded the maester to remain at the Eyrie at all times, to care for Lord Robert,† he said. â€Å"We have a septon at the gate who tends to our wounded. He can see to your man’s hurts.† Catelyn had more faith in a maester’s learning than a septon’s prayers. She was about to say as much when she saw the battlements ahead, long parapets built into the very stone of the mountains on either side of them. Where the pass shrank to a narrow defile scarce wide enough for four men to ride abreast, twin watchtowers clung to the rocky slopes, joined by a covered bridge of weathered grey stone that arched above the road. Silent faces watched from arrow slits in tower, battlements, and bridge. When they had climbed almost to the top, a knight rode out to meet them. His horse and his armor were grey, but his cloak was the rippling blue-and-red of Riverrun, and a shiny black fish, wrought in gold and obsidian, pinned its folds against his shoulder. â€Å"Who would pass the Bloody Gate?† he called. â€Å"Ser Donnel Waynwood, with the Lady Catelyn Stark and her companions,† the young knight answered. The Knight of the Gate lifted his visor. â€Å"I thought the lady looked familiar. You are far from home, little Cat.† â€Å"And you, Uncle,† she said, smiling despite all she had been through. Hearing that hoarse, smoky voice again took her back twenty years, to the days of her childhood. â€Å"My home is at my back,† he said gruffly. â€Å"Your home is in my heart,† Catelyn told him. â€Å"Take off your helm. I would look on your face again.† â€Å"The years have not improved it, I fear,† Brynden Tully said, but when he lifted off the helm, Catelyn saw that he lied. His features were lined and weathered, and time had stolen the auburn from his hair and left him only grey, but the smile was the same, and the bushy eyebrows fat as caterpillars, and the laughter in his deep blue eyes. â€Å"Did Lysa know you were coming?† â€Å"There was no time to send word ahead,† Catelyn told him. The others were coming up behind her. â€Å"I fear we ride before the storm, Uncle.† â€Å"May we enter the Vale?† Ser Donnel asked. The Waynwoods were ever ones for ceremony. You read "A Game of Thrones Chapter Thirty-four" in category "Essay examples" â€Å"In the name of Robert Arryn, Lord of the Eyrie, Defender of the Vale, True Warden of the East, I bid you enter freely, and charge you to keep his peace,† Ser Brynden replied. â€Å"Come.† And so she rode behind him, beneath the shadow of the Bloody Gate where a dozen armies had dashed themselves to pieces in the Age of Heroes. On the far side of the stoneworks, the mountains opened up suddenly upon a vista of green fields, blue sky, and snowcapped mountains that took her breath away. The Vale of Arryn bathed in the morning light. It stretched before them to the misty cast, a tranquil land of rich black soil, wide slow-moving rivers, and hundreds of small lakes that shone like mirrors in the sun, protected on all sides by its sheltering peaks. Wheat and corn and barley grew high in its fields, and even in Highgarden the pumpkins were no larger nor the fruit any sweeter than here. They stood at the western end of the valley, where the high road crested the last pass and began its winding descent to the bottomlands two miles below. The Vale was narrow here, no more than a half day’s ride across, and the northern mountains seemed so close that Catelyn could almost reach out and touch them. Looming over them all was the jagged peak called the Giant’s Lance, a mountain that even mountains looked up to, its head lost in icy mists three and a half miles above the valley floor. Over its massive western shoulder flowed the ghost torrent of Alyssa’s Tears. Even from this distance, Catelyn could make out the shining silver thread, bright against the dark stone. When her uncle saw that she had stopped, he moved his horse closer and pointed. â€Å"It’s there, beside Alyssa’s Tears. All you can see from here is a flash of white every now and then, if you look hard and the sun hits the walls just right.† Seven towers, Ned had told her, like white daggers thrust into the belly of the sky, so high you can stand on the parapets and look down on the clouds. â€Å"How long a ride?† she asked. â€Å"We can be at the mountain by evenfall,† Uncle Brynden said, â€Å"but the climb will take another day.† Ser Rodrik Cassel spoke up from behind. â€Å"My lady,† he said, â€Å"I fear I can go no farther today.† His face sagged beneath his ragged, newgrown whiskers, and he looked so weary Catelyn feared he might fall off his horse. â€Å"Nor should you,† she said. â€Å"You have done all I could have asked of you, and a hundred times more. My uncle will see me the rest of the way to the Eyrie. Lannister must come with me, but there is no reason that you and the others should not rest here and recover your strength.† â€Å"We should be honored to have them to guest,† Ser Donnel said with the grave courtesy of the young. Beside Ser Rodrik, only Bronn, Ser Willis Wode, and Marillion the singer remained of the party that had ridden with her from the inn by the crossroads. â€Å"My lady,† Marillion said, riding forward. â€Å"I beg you allow me to accompany you to the Eyrie, to see the end of the tale as I saw its beginnings.† The boy sounded haggard, yet strangely determined; he had a fevered shine to his eyes. Catelyn had never asked the singer to ride with them; that choice he had made himself, and how he had come to survive the journey when so many braver men lay dead and unburied behind them, she could never say. Yet here he was, with a scruff of beard that made him look almost a man. Perhaps she owed him something for having come this far. â€Å"Very well,† she told him. â€Å"I’ll come as well,† Bronn announced. She liked that less well. Without Bronn she would never have reached the Vale, she knew; the sellsword was as fierce a fighter as she had ever seen, and his sword had helped cut them through to safety. Yet for all that, Catelyn misliked the man. Courage he had, and strength, but there was no kindness in him, and little loyalty. And she had seen him riding beside Lannister far too often, talking in low voices and laughing at some private joke. She would have preferred to separate him from the dwarf here and now, but having agreed that Marillion might continue to the Eyrie, she could see no gracious way to deny that same right to Bronn. â€Å"As you wish,† she said, although she noted that he had not actually asked her permission. Ser Willis Wode remained with Ser Rodrik, a soft-spoken septon fussing over their wounds. Their horses were left behind as well, poor ragged things. Ser Donnel promised to send birds ahead to the Eyrie and the Gates of the Moon with the word of their coming. Fresh mounts were brought forth from the stables, surefooted mountain stock with shaggy coats, and within the hour they set forth once again. Catelyn rode beside her uncle as they began the descent to the valley floor. Behind came Bronn, Tyrion Lannister, Marillion, and six of Brynden’s men. Not until they were a third of the way down the mountain path, well out of earshot of the others, did Brynden Tully turn to her and say, â€Å"So, child. Tell me about this storm of yours.† â€Å"I have not been a child in many years, Uncle,† Catelyn said, but she told him nonetheless. It took longer than she would have believed to tell it all, Lysa’s letter and Bran’s fall, the assassin’s dagger and Littlefinger and her chance meeting with Tyrion Lannister in the crossroads inn. Her uncle listened silently, heavy brows shadowing his eyes as his frown grew deeper. Brynden Tully had always known how to listen . . . to anyone but her father. He was Lord Hoster’s brother, younger by five years, but the two of them had been at war as far back as Catelyn could remember. During one of their louder quarrels, when Catelyn was eight, Lord Hoster had called Brynden â€Å"the black goat of the Tully flock.† Laughing, Brynden had pointed out that the sigil of their house was a leaping trout, so he ought to be a black fish rather than a black goat, and from that day forward he had taken it as his personal emblem. The war had not ended until the day she and Lysa had been wed. It was at their wedding feast that Brynden told his brother he was leaving Riverrun to serve Lysa and her new husband, the Lord of the Eyrie. Lord Hoster had not spoken his brother’s name since, from what Edmure told her in his infrequent letters. Nonetheless, during all those years of Catelyn’s girlhood, it had been Brynden the Blackfish to whom Lord Hoster’s children had run with their tears and their tales, when Father was too busy and Mother too ill. Catelyn, Lysa, Edmure . . . and yes, even Petyr Baelish, their father’s ward . . . he had listened to them all patiently, as he listened now, laughing at their triumphs and sympathizing with their childish misfortunes. When she was done, her uncle remained silent for a long time, as his horse negotiated the steep, rocky trail. â€Å"Your father must be told,† he said at last. â€Å"If the Lannisters should march, Winterfell is remote and the Vale walled up behind its mountains, but Riverrun lies right in their path.† â€Å"I’d had the same fear,† Catelyn admitted. â€Å"I shall ask Maester Colemon to send a bird when we reach the Eyrie.† She had other messages to send as well; the commands that Ned had given her for his bannermen, to ready the defenses of the north. â€Å"What is the mood in the Vale?† she asked. â€Å"Angry,† Brynden Tully admitted. â€Å"Lord Jon was much loved, and the insult was keenly felt when the king named Jaime Lannister to an office the Arryns had held for near three hundred years. Lysa has commanded us to call her son the True Warden of the East, but no one is fooled. Nor is your sister alone in wondering at the manner of the Hand’s death. None dare say Jon was murdered, not openly, but suspicion casts a long shadow.† He gave Catelyn a look, his mouth tight. â€Å"And there is the boy.† â€Å"The boy? What of him?† She ducked her head as they passed under a low overhang of rock, and around a sharp turn. Her uncle’s voice was troubled. â€Å"Lord Robert,† he sighed. â€Å"Six years old, sickly, and prone to weep if you take his dolls away. Jon Arryn’s trueborn heir, by all the gods, yet there are some who say he is too weak to sit his father’s seat, Nestor Royce has been high steward these past fourteen years, while Lord Jon served in King’s Landing, and many whisper that he should rule until the boy comes of age. Others believe that Lysa must marry again, and soon. Already the suitors gather like crows on a battlefield. The Eyrie is full of them.† â€Å"I might have expected that,† Catelyn said. Small wonder there; Lysa was still young, and the kingdom of Mountain and Vale made a handsome wedding gift. â€Å"Will Lysa take another husband?† â€Å"She says yes, provided she finds a man who suits her,† Brynden Tully said, â€Å"but she has already rejected Lord Nestor and a dozen other suitable men. She swears that this time she will choose her lord husband.† â€Å"You of all people can scarce fault her for that.† Ser Brynden snorted. â€Å"Nor do I, but . . . it seems to me Lysa is only playing at courtship. She enjoys the sport, but I believe your sister intends to rule herself until her boy is old enough to be Lord of the Eyrie in truth as well as name.† â€Å"A woman can rule as wisely as a man,† Catelyn said. â€Å"The right woman can,† her uncle said with a sideways glance. â€Å"Make no mistake, Cat. Lysa is not you.† He hesitated a moment. â€Å"If truth be told, I fear you may not find your sister as helpful as you would like.† She was puzzled. â€Å"What do you mean?† â€Å"The Lysa who came back from King’s Landing is not the same girl who went south when her husband was named Hand. Those years were hard for her. You must know. Lord Arryn was a dutiful husband, but their marriage was made from politics, not passion.† â€Å"As was my own.† â€Å"They began the same, but your ending has been happier than your sister’s. Two babes stillborn, twice as many miscarriages, Lord Arryn’s death . . . Catelyn, the gods gave Lysa only the one child, and he is all your sister lives for now, poor boy. Small wonder she fled rather than see him handed over to the Lannisters. Your sister is afraid, child, and the Lannisters are what she fears most. She ran to the Vale, stealing away from the Red Keep like a thief in the night, and all to snatch her son out of the lion’s mouth . . . and now you have brought the lion to her door.† â€Å"In chains,† Catelyn said. A crevasse yawned on her right, falling away into darkness. She reined up her horse and picked her way along step by careful step. â€Å"Oh?† Her uncle glanced back, to where Tyrion Lannister was making his slow descent behind them. â€Å"I see an axe on his saddle, a dirk at his belt, and a sellsword that trails after him like a hungry shadow. Where are the chains, sweet one?† Catelyn shifted uneasily in her seat. â€Å"The dwarf is here, and not by choice. Chains or no, he is my prisoner. Lysa will want him to answer for his crimes no less than I. It was her own lord husband the Lannisters murdered, and her own letter that first warned us against them.† Brynden Blackfish gave her a weary smile. â€Å"I hope you are right, child,† he sighed, in tones that said she was wrong. The sun was well to the west by the time the slope began to flatten beneath the hooves of their horses. The road widened and grew straight, and for the first time Catelyn noticed wildflowers and grasses growing. Once they reached the valley floor, the going was faster and they made good time, cantering through verdant greenwoods and sleepy little hamlets, past orchards and golden wheat fields, splashing across a dozen sunlit streams. Her uncle sent a standard-bearer ahead of them, a double banner flying from his staff; the moon-and-falcon of House Arryn on high, and below it his own black fish. Farm wagons and merchants’ carts and riders from lesser houses moved aside to let them pass. Even so, it was full dark before they reached the stout castle that stood at the foot of the Giant’s Lance. Torches flickered atop its ramparts, and the horned moon danced upon the dark waters of its moat. The drawbridge was up and the portcullis down, but Catelyn saw lights burning in the gatehouse and spilling from the windows of the square towers beyond. â€Å"The Gates of the Moon,† her uncle said as the party drew rein. His standard-bearer rode to the edge of the moat to hail the men in the gatehouse. â€Å"Lord Nestor’s seat. He should be expecting us. Look up.† Catelyn raised her eyes, up and up and up. At first all she saw was stone and trees, the looming mass of the great mountain shrouded in night, as black as a starless sky. Then she noticed the glow of distant fires well above them; a tower keep, built upon the steep side of the mountain, its lights like orange eyes staring down from above. Above that was another, higher and more distant, and still higher a third, no more than a flickering spark in the sky. And finally, up where the falcons soared, a flash of white in the moonlight. Vertigo washed over her as she stared upward at the pale towers, so far above. â€Å"The Eyrie,† she heard Marillion murmur, awed. The sharp voice of Tyrion Lannister broke in. â€Å"The Arryns must not be overfond of company. If you’re planning to make us climb that mountain in the dark, I’d rather you kill me here.† â€Å"We’ll spend the night here and make the ascent on the morrow,† Brynden told him. â€Å"I can scarcely wait,† the dwarf replied. â€Å"How do we get up there? I’ve no experience at riding goats.† â€Å"Mules,† Brynden said, smiling. â€Å"There are steps carved into the mountain,† Catelyn said. Ned had told her about them when he talked of his youth here with Robert Baratheon and Jon Arryn. Her uncle nodded. â€Å"It is too dark to see them, but the steps are there. Too steep and narrow for horses, but mules can manage them most of the way. The path is guarded by three waycastles, Stone and Snow and Sky. The mules will take us as far up as Sky.† Tyrion Lannister glanced up doubtfully. â€Å"And beyond that?† Brynden smiled. â€Å"Beyond that, the path is too steep even for mules. We ascend on foot the rest of the way. Or perchance you’d prefer to ride a basket. The Eyrie clings to the mountain directly above Sky, and in its cellars are six great winches with long iron chains to draw supplies up from below. If you prefer, my lord of Lannister, I can arrange for you to ride up with the bread and beer and apples.† The dwarf gave a bark of laughter. â€Å"Would that I were a pumpkin,† he said. â€Å"Alas, my lord father would no doubt be most chagrined if his son of Lannister went to his fate like a load of turnips. If you ascend on foot, I fear I must do the same. We Lannisters do have a certain pride.† â€Å"Pride?† Catelyn snapped. His mocking tone and easy manner made her angry. â€Å"Arrogance, some might call it. Arrogance and avarice and lust for power.† â€Å"My brother is undoubtedly arrogant,† Tyrion Lannister replied. â€Å"My father is the soul of avarice, and my sweet sister Cersei lusts for power with every waking breath. I, however, am innocent as a little lamb. Shall I bleat for you?† He grinned. The drawbridge came creaking down before she could reply, and they heard the sound of oiled chains as the portcullis was drawn up. Men-at-arms carried burning brands out to light their way, and her uncle led them across the moat. Lord Nestor Royce, High Steward of the Vale and Keeper of the Gates of the Moon, was waiting in the yard to greet them, surrounded by his knights. â€Å"Lady Stark,† he said, bowing. He was a massive, barrel-chested man, and his bow was clumsy. Catelyn dismounted to stand before him. â€Å"Lord Nestor,† she said. She knew the man only by reputation; Bronze Yohn’s cousin, from a lesser branch of House Royce, yet still a formidable lord in his own right. â€Å"We have had a long and tiring journey. I would beg the hospitality of your roof tonight, if I might.† â€Å"My roof is yours, my lady,† Lord Nestor returned gruffly, â€Å"but your sister the Lady Lysa has sent down word from the Eyrie. She wishes to see you at once. The rest of your party will be housed here and sent up at first light.† Her uncle swung off his horse. â€Å"What madness is this?† he said bluntly. Brynden Tully had never been a man to blunt the edge of his words. â€Å"A night ascent, with the moon not even full? Even Lysa should know that’s an invitation to a broken neck.† â€Å"The mules know the way, Ser Brynden.† A wiry girl of seventeen or eighteen years stepped up beside Lord Nestor. Her dark hair was cropped short and straight around her head, and she wore riding leathers and a light shirt of silvered ringmail. She bowed to Catelyn, more gracefully than her lord. â€Å"I promise you, my lady, no harm will come to you. It would be my honor to take you up. I’ve made the dark climb a hundred times. Mychel says my father must have been a goat.† She sounded so cocky that Catelyn had to smile. â€Å"Do you have a name, child?† â€Å"Mya Stone, if it please you, my lady,† the girl said. It did not please her; it was an effort for Catelyn to keep the smile on her face. Stone was a bastard’s name in the Vale, as Snow was in the north, and Flowers in Highgarden; in each of the Seven Kingdoms, custom had fashioned a surname for children born with no names of their own. Catelyn had nothing against this girl, but suddenly she could not help but think of Ned’s bastard on the Wall, and the thought made her angry and guilty, both at once. She struggled to find words for a reply. Lord Nestor filled the silence. â€Å"Mya’s a clever girl, and if she vows she will bring you safely to the Lady Lysa, I believe her. She has not failed me yet.† â€Å"Then I put myself in your hands, Mya Stone,† Catelyn said. â€Å"Lord Nestor, I charge you to keep a close guard on my prisoner.† â€Å"And I charge you to bring the prisoner a cup of wine and a nicely crisped capon, before he dies of hunger,† Lannister said. â€Å"A girl would be pleasant as well, but I suppose that’s too much to ask of you.† The sellsword Bronn laughed aloud. Lord Nestor ignored the banter. â€Å"As you say, my lady, so it will be done.† Only then did he look at the dwarf. â€Å"See our lord of Lannister to a tower cell, and bring him meat and mead.† Catelyn took her leave of her uncle and the others as Tyrion Lannister was led off, then followed the bastard girl through the castle. Two mules were waiting in the upper bailey, saddled and ready. Mya helped her mount one while a guardsman in a sky-blue cloak opened the narrow postern gate. Beyond was dense forest of pine and spruce, and the mountain like a black wall, but the steps were there, chiseled deep into the rock, ascending into the sky. â€Å"Some people find it easier if they close their eyes,† Mya said as she led the mules through the gate into the dark wood. â€Å"When they get frightened or dizzy, sometimes they hold on to the mule too tight. They don’t like that.† â€Å"I was born a Tully and wed to a Stark,† Catelyn said. â€Å"I do not frighten easily. Do you plan to light a torch?† The steps were black as pitch. The girl made a face. â€Å"Torches just blind you. On a clear night like this, the moon and the stars are enough. Mychel says I have the eyes of the owl.† She mounted and urged her mule up the first step. Catelyn’s animal followed of its own accord. â€Å"You mentioned Mychel before,† Catelyn said. The mules set the pace, slow but steady. She was perfectly content with that. â€Å"Mychel’s my love,† Mya explained. â€Å"Mychel Redfort. He’s squire to Ser Lyn Corbray. We’re to wed as soon as he becomes a knight, next year or the year after.† She sounded so like Sansa, so happy and innocent with her dreams. Catelyn smiled, but the smile was tinged with sadness. The Redforts were an old name in the Vale, she knew, with the blood of the First Men in their veins. His love she might be, but no Redfort would ever wed a bastard. His family would arrange a more suitable match for him, to a Corbray or a Waynwood or a Royce, or perhaps a daughter of some greater house outside the Vale. If Mychel Redfort laid with this girl at all, it would be on the wrong side of the sheet. The ascent was easier than Catelyn had dared hope. The trees pressed close, leaning over the path to make a rustling green roof that shut out even the moon, so it seemed as though they were moving up a long black tunnel. But the mules were surefooted and tireless, and Mya Stone did indeed seem blessed with night-eyes. They plodded upward, winding their way back and forth across the face of the mountain as the steps twisted and turned. A thick layer of fallen needles carpeted the path, so the shoes of their mules made only the softest sound on the rock. The quiet soothed her, and the gentle rocking motion set Catelyn to swaying in her saddle. Before long she was fighting sleep. Perhaps she did doze for a moment, for suddenly a massive ironbound gate was looming before them. â€Å"Stone,† Mya announced cheerily, dismounting. Iron spikes were set along the tops of formidable stone walls, and two fat round towers overtopped the keep. The gate swung open at Mya’s shout. Inside, the portly knight who commanded the waycastle greeted Mya by name and offered them skewers of charred meat and onions still hot from the spit. Catelyn had not realized how hungry she was. She ate standing in the yard, as stablehands moved their saddles to fresh mules. The hot juices ran down her chin and dripped onto her cloak, but she was too famished to care. Then it was up onto a new mule and out again into the starlight. The second part of the ascent seemed more treacherous to Catelyn. The trail was steeper, the steps more worn, and here and there littered with pebbles and broken stone. Mya had to dismount a half-dozen times to move fallen rocks from their path. â€Å"You don’t want your mule to break a leg up here,† she said. Catelyn was forced to agree. She could feel the altitude more now. The trees were sparser up here, and the wind blew more vigorously, sharp gusts that tugged at her clothing and pushed her hair into her eyes. From time to time the steps doubled back on themselves, and she could see Stone below them, and the Gates of the Moon farther down, its torches no brighter than candles. Snow was smaller than Stone, a single fortified tower and a timber keep and stable hidden behind a low wall of unmortared rock. Yet it nestled against the Giant’s Lance in such a way as to command the entire stone stair above the lower waycastle. An enemy intent on the Eyrie would have to fight his way from Stone step by step, while rocks and arrows rained down from Snow above. The commander, an anxious young knight with a pockmarked face, offered bread and cheese and the chance to warm themselves before his fire, but Mya declined. â€Å"We ought to keep going, my lady,† she said. â€Å"If it please you.† Catelyn nodded. Again they were given fresh mules. Hers was white. Mya smiled when she saw him. â€Å"Whitey’s a good one, my lady. Sure of foot, even on ice, but you need to be careful. He’ll kick if he doesn’t like you.† The white mule seemed to like Catelyn; there was no kicking, thank the gods. There was no ice either, and she was grateful for that as well. â€Å"My mother says that hundreds of years ago, this was where the snow began,† Mya told her. â€Å"It was always white above here, and the ice never melted.† She shrugged. â€Å"I can’t remember ever seeing snow this far down the mountain, but maybe it was that way once, in the olden times.† So young, Catelyn thought, trying to remember if she had ever been like that. The girl had lived half her life in summer, and that was all she knew. Winter is coming, child, she wanted to tell her. The words were on her lips; she almost said them. Perhaps she was becoming a Stark at last. Above Snow, the wind was a living thing, howling around them like a wolf in the waste, then falling off to nothing as if to lure them into complacency. The stars seemed brighter up here, so close that she could almost touch them, and the horned moon was huge in the clear black sky. As they climbed, Catelyn found it was better to look up than down. The steps were cracked and broken from centuries of freeze and thaw and the tread of countless mules, and even in the dark the heights put her heart in her throat. When they came to a high saddle between two spires of rock, Mya dismounted. â€Å"It’s best to lead the mules over,† she said. â€Å"The wind can be a little scary here, my lady.† Catelyn climbed stiffly from the shadows and looked at the path ahead; twenty feet long and close to three feet wide, but with a precipitous drop to either side. She could hear the wind shrieking. Mya stepped lightly out, her mule following as calmly as if they were crossing a bailey. It was her turn. Yet no sooner had she taken her first step than fear caught Catelyn in its jaws. She could feel the emptiness, the vast black gulfs of air that yawned around her. She stopped, trembling, afraid to move. The wind screamed at her and wrenched at her cloak, trying to pull her over the edge. Catelyn edged her foot backward, the most timid of steps, but the mule was behind her, and she could not retreat. I am going to die here, she thought. She could feel cold sweat trickling down her back. â€Å"Lady Stark,† Mya called across the gulf. The girl sounded a thousand leagues away. â€Å"Are you well?† Catelyn Tully Stark swallowed what remained of her pride. â€Å"I . . . I cannot do this, child,† she called out. â€Å"Yes you can,† the bastard girl said. â€Å"I know you can. Look how wide the path is.† â€Å"I don’t want to look.† The world seemed to be spinning around her, mountain and sky and mules, whirling like a child’s top. Catelyn closed her eyes to steady her ragged breathing. â€Å"I’ll come back for you,† Mya said. â€Å"Don’t move, my lady.† Moving was about the last thing Catelyn was about to do. She listened to the skirling of the wind and the scuffling sound of leather on stone. Then Mya was there, taking her gently by the arm. â€Å"Keep your eyes closed if you like. Let go of the rope now, Whitey will take care of himself. Very good, my lady. I’ll lead you over, it’s easy, you’ll see. Give me a step now. That’s it, move your foot, just slide it forward. See. Now another. Easy. You could run across. Another one, go on. Yes.† And so, foot by foot, step by step, the bastard girl led Catelyn across, blind and trembling, while the white mule followed placidly behind them. The waycastle called Sky was no more than a high, crescent-shaped wall of unmortared stone raised against the side of the mountain, but even the topless towers of Valyria could not have looked more beautiful to Catelyn Stark. Here at last the snow crown began; Sky’s weathered stones were rimed with frost, and long spears of ice hung from the slopes above. Dawn was breaking in the east as Mya Stone hallooed for the guards, and the gates opened before them. Inside the walls there was only a series of ramps and a great tumble of boulders and stones of all sizes. No doubt it would be the easiest thing in the world to begin an avalanche from here. A mouth yawned in the rock face in front of them. â€Å"The stables and barracks are in there,† Mya said. â€Å"The last part is inside the mountain. It can be a little dark, but at least you’re out of the wind. This is as far as the mules can go. Past here, well, it’s a sort of chimney, more like a stone ladder than proper steps, but it’s not too bad. Another hour and we’ll be there.† Catelyn looked up. Directly overhead, pale in the dawn light, she could see the foundations of the Eyrie. It could not be more than six hundred feet above them. From below it looked like a small white honeycomb. She remembered what her uncle had said of baskets and winches. â€Å"The Lannisters may have their pride,† she told Mya, â€Å"but the Tullys are born with better sense. I have ridden all day and the best part of a night. Tell them to lower a basket. I shall ride with the turnips.† The sun was well above the mountains by the time Catelyn Stark finally reached the Eyrie. A stocky, silver-haired man in a sky-blue cloak and hammered moon-and-falcon breastplate helped her from the basket; Ser Vardis Egen, captain of Jon Arryn’s household guard. Beside him stood Maester Colemon, thin and nervous, with too little hair and too much neck. â€Å"Lady Stark,† Ser Vardis said, â€Å"the pleasure is as great as it is unanticipated.† Maester Colemon bobbed his head in agreement. â€Å"Indeed it is, my lady, indeed it is. I have sent word to your sister. She left orders to be awakened the instant you arrived.† â€Å"I hope she had a good night’s rest,† Catelyn said with a certain bite in her tone that seemed to go unnoticed. The men escorted her from the winch room up a spiral stair. The Eyrie was a small castle by the standards of the great houses; seven slender white towers bunched as tightly as arrows in a quiver on a shoulder of the great mountain. It had no need of stables nor smithys nor kennels, but Ned said its granary was as large as Winterfell’s, and its towers could house five hundred men. Yet it seemed strangely deserted to Catelyn as she passed through it, its pale stone halls echoing and empty. Lysa was waiting alone in her solar, still clad in her bed robes. Her long auburn hair tumbled unbound across bare white shoulders and down her back. A maid stood behind her, brushing out the night’s tangles, but when Catelyn entered, her sister rose to her feet, smiling. â€Å"Cat,† she said. â€Å"Oh, Cat, how good it is to see you. My sweet sister.† She ran across the chamber and wrapped her sister in her arms. â€Å"How long it has been,† Lysa murmured against her. â€Å"Oh, how very very long.† It had been five years, in truth; five cruel years, for Lysa. They had taken their toll. Her sister was two years the younger, yet she looked older now. Shorter than Catelyn, Lysa had grown thick of body, pale and puffy of face. She had the blue eyes of the Tullys, but hers were pale and watery, never still. Her small mouth had turned petulant. As Catelyn held her, she remembered the slender, high-breasted girl who’d waited beside her that day in the sept at Riverrun. How lovely and full of hope she had been. All that remained of her sister’s beauty was the great fall of thick auburn hair that cascaded to her waist. â€Å"You look well,† Catelyn lied, â€Å"but . . . tired.† Her sister broke the embrace. â€Å"Tired. Yes. Oh, yes.† She seemed to notice the others then; her maid, Maester Colemon, Ser Vardis. â€Å"Leave us,† she told them. â€Å"I wish to speak to my sister alone.† She held Catelyn’s hand as they withdrew . . . . . . and dropped it the instant the door closed. Catelyn saw her face change. It was as if the sun had gone behind a cloud. â€Å"Have you taken leave of your senses?† Lysa snapped at her. â€Å"To bring him here, without a word of permission, without so much as a warning, to drag us into your quarrels with the Lannisters . . . â€Å" â€Å"My quarrels?† Catelyn could scarce believe what she was hearing. A great fire burned in the hearth, but there was no trace of warmth in Lysa’s voice. â€Å"They were your quarrels first, sister. It was you who sent me that cursed letter, you who wrote that the Lannisters had murdered your husband.† â€Å"To warn you, so you could stay away from them! I never meant to fight them! Gods, Cat, do you know what you’ve done?† â€Å"Mother?† a small voice said. Lysa whirled, her heavy robe swirling around her. Robert Arryn, Lord of the Eyrie, stood in the doorway, clutching a ragged cloth doll and looking at them with large eyes. He was a painfully thin child, small for his age and sickly all his days, and from time to time he trembled. The shaking sickness, the maesters called it. â€Å"I heard voices.† Small wonder, Catelyn thought; Lysa had almost been shouting. Still, her sister looked daggers at her. â€Å"This is your aunt Catelyn, baby. My sister, Lady Stark. Do you remember?† The boy glanced at her blankly. â€Å"I think so,† he said, blinking, though he had been less than a year old the last time Catelyn had seen him. Lysa seated herself near the fire and said, â€Å"Come to Mother, my sweet one.† She straightened his bedclothes and fussed with his fine brown hair. â€Å"Isn’t he beautiful? And strong too, don’t you believe the things you hear. Jon knew. The seed is strong, he told me. His last words. He kept saying Robert’s name, and he grabbed my arm so hard he left marks. Tell them, the seed is strong. His seed. He wanted everyone to know what a good strong boy my baby was going to be.† â€Å"Lysa,† Catelyn said, â€Å"if you’re right about the Lannisters, all the more reason we must act quickly. We—† â€Å"Not in front of the baby,† Lysa said. â€Å"He has a delicate temper, don’t you, sweet one?† â€Å"The boy is Lord of the Eyrie and Defender of the Vale,† Catelyn reminded her, â€Å"and these are no times for delicacy. Ned thinks it may come to war.† â€Å"Quiet!† Lysa snapped at her. â€Å"You’re scaring the boy.† Little Robert took a quick peek over his shoulder at Catelyn and began to tremble. His doll fell to the rushes, and he pressed himself against his mother. â€Å"Don’t be afraid, my sweet baby,† Lysa whispered. â€Å"Mother’s here, nothing will hurt you.† She opened her robe and drew out a pale, heavy breast, tipped with red. The boy grabbed for it eagerly, buried his face against her chest, and began to suck. Lysa stroked his hair. Catelyn was at a loss for words. Jon Arryn’s son, she thought incredulously. She remembered her own baby, three-year-old Rickon, half the age of this boy and five times as fierce. Small wonder the lords of the Vale were restive. For the first time she understood why the king had tried to take the child away from his mother to foster with the Lannisters . . . â€Å"We’re safe here,† Lysa was saying. Whether to her or to the boy, Catelyn was not sure. â€Å"Don’t be a fool,† Catelyn said, the anger rising in her. â€Å"No one is safe. If you think hiding here will make the Lannisters forget you, you are sadly mistaken.† Lysa covered her boy’s ear with her hand. â€Å"Even if they could bring an army through the mountains and past the Bloody Gate, the Eyrie is impregnable. You saw for yourself. No enemy could ever reach us up here.† Catelyn wanted to slap her. Uncle Brynden had tried to warn her, she realized. â€Å"No castle is impregnable.† â€Å"This one is,† Lysa insisted. â€Å"Everyone says so. The only thing is, what am I to do with this Imp you have brought me?† â€Å"Is he a bad man?† the Lord of the Eyrie asked, his mother’s breast popping from his mouth, the nipple wet and red. â€Å"A very bad man,† Lysa told him as she covered herself, â€Å"but Mother won’t let him harm my little baby.† â€Å"Make him fly,† Robert said eagerly. Lysa stroked her son’s hair. â€Å"Perhaps we will,† she murmured. â€Å"Perhaps that is just what we will do.† How to cite A Game of Thrones Chapter Thirty-four, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

The Young Fast Optoelectronics Companys Conflicts

Introduction This paper aims to discuss the controversy that occurred in Taiwanese Company Young Fast Optoelectronics (YFO). This enterprise is a supplier of such leading international corporations as Samsung, HTC, Google, and LG.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Young Fast Optoelectronics Company’s Conflicts specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In March 2010, the management of YFO dismissed more than ten union members, who protested against poor working conditions in the factory and illegal practices, pursued by the management of the company. Afterwards, it was also discovered that the YFO employees had to work overtime without any compensation and that the company hired students who did not reach the age of sixteen (Good Electronics, 2010, unpaged). This scandal attracted the attention of the government and international trade union organizations. Several stakeholders are involved in this argument: 1) the workers of this manufacturing facility and trade unions; 2) the management of YFO; 3) the government of the country, and 4) international companies, supplied by YFO. Overall, it is possible to argue that this one of those case when ethical principles and legislation contradict each other. Domestic laws do not explicitly forbid sweatshop practices and, the government has very few legal means of influencing the decisions of the management; more likely the governmental officials are unwilling to intervene into the affairs of YFO. However, such companies as Google or HTC try to be or at least appear responsible corporate citizens and they certainly do not want to be associated with the supplier that abuses the rights of its employees. In this essay we need to discuss the arguments, made by each party involved in this controversy and evaluate them from different moral perspectives, like Utilitarianism and Kantian ethics. These ethical theories can be used as effective tools to assess th e behavior of private and public organizations. The argument, made by various stakeholders The government In order to discuss this conflict of interest, one should first understand the controversial nature of sweatshops. This is one of those social phenomena that existed virtually in every country, even in advanced economies at a certain point of time. Certainly in such countries as the United States, the United Kingdom, or Germany they disappeared in the first half of the twentieth century, as the quality of living improved and private businesses could no longer dictate their terms to the workers (Balonze, 2004). However, in developing countries such practice is still very widespread because the bargaining power of workers is not strong enough and they cannot choose from a great variety of employers. One should also bear in mind that Asian economies are growing at such a rapid pace mostly due to the cheapness of labor, and the governments of these countries are not particularly int erested in the eradication of sweatshops.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The thing is that the adoption of stringent labor laws may eventually force international investors out of the country (Balonze, 2004, p 77). The most dangerous thing is that a great number of people can lose their only source of income, if the local labor legislation is changed. This ambiguous nature of sweatshops is the main reason why this case is contradictory. Naturally, one should not assume that the government cannot do anything to stop this exploitation of employees, for example, they can impose fines on YFO. Yet, the problem is that it will be easier for the management to pay these fines rather than adopt a new attitude toward workers. Under the circumstances, the government is guided by utilitarian ethics. According to this doctrine, every action which promotes the well-being of the entire co mmunity can be justified, even if they harm a limited group of people (Gensler et al, 2004 unpaged). They may defend their policies by arguing in the following way: if government increases pressure on the management of YFO, the company will have to reduce the volume of its output or even worse, its services will no longer be required by the international corporations like LG, Samsung, and Qualcomm. In the long term, it may result in the reduction of the staff. So, to some extent, utilitarianism or consequentialism, as it is also known, can be used to justify their argument. Still, one should not suppose that utilitarianism is the only way of looking at this problem. For instance, if one applies Kantian interpretation of moral, the governmental policies will no longer seem morally permissible. It should be taken into consideration that Kantian ethics also emphasizes the motives, underlying any action, rather than its consequences (Sullivan, 1994). This ethical theory postulates that in order to determine the moral worth of any action or behavior a person should think of what would happen if this behavior becomes universal (Sullivan, 1994). In other words, one should think of what would happen if sweatshop became the most widespread type of workplace and the employers received a chance of exploiting workers with impunity. It seems that in this case the quality of living in Taiwan will greatly deteriorate. Therefore, from this viewpoint, the government’s indifference is morally impermissible and even harmful to the community. This discussion shows that the same action can have various moral and ethical interpretations. The management of Young Fast Optoelectronics and the company’s partners The management of Young Fast Optoelectronics also takes a utilitarian approach to this problem. They are primarily concerned with financial and operational performance of the enterprise, rather than well-being of the employees. They argue that by raising labor sta ndards in the organization, for instance by paying additional compensation to the employees and reducing the working hours, they will make the company less attractive to their foreign partners. Moreover, they will be forced to dismiss a great number of workers.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Young Fast Optoelectronics Company’s Conflicts specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To some degree, they follow a rule, formulated by Nicolo Machiavelli who argued that â€Å"the ends justified the means† (Benner, 2009, p 359). The core principle of this philosophy is that even an immoral action can be acceptable, if it will contribute to the common good (Benner, 2009). Under the circumstances the notion of common good can be understood as financial and operational performance of the company. One should not forget that over the last several years, the value of the company’s stock has risen dramatically, and each of the administrators, engineers and supervisors received a bonus, whereas workers were not compensated for their effort in any way (Good Electronics, 2010, unpaged). Therefore, we can argue that the policies of the management cannot be justified even from utilitarian perspective. Utilitarian ethics set stress on the fact that the action is moral only if it benefits the majority, rather a limited group of people, while in this case, the workers, who represent the majority, are put in an underprivileged position. Kantian ethics also does not enable us to vindicate such strategies because they have nothing to do with moral duty and with concern for people’s welfare; more likely, this is just a pursuit of profit. Actually, it is very difficult to find any ethical theory that would help the management of YFO to defend their position because virtually every ethical theory strongly relies on the so-called golden rule, according to which one should treat others as he/she w ants to be treated. As it has been mentioned before, YFO is a leading supplier of such internationally-known corporations as Qualcomm, LG, Samsung and so forth. They prefer the services of this organization because it provides the best price-quality ratio; however, they do not pay much attention to the human resource management of YFO. Again, from legal standpoint, they are not obliged to do it. However, many of them emphasize their responsible corporate behavior, while this indifference to the needs of Taiwanese workers can really tarnish their public image. These stakeholders also adopt utilitarian point of view to this problem because the main purpose of these international corporation is the maximization of revenues, and partnership with YFO is probably the best way to do it. Nonetheless, in the long term such strategy can significantly affect their profitability because more and more people, living in advanced countries, are growing more aware such notion as ethical consumption , and they pay attention to the environmental and human resource policies of the enterprise.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The employees Finally, we need to speak about the most important group of stakeholders, the employees. In part, we have already presented their argument: they believe that despite the improvement of company’s performance, they felt no positive change (Good Electronics, 2010, unpaged). Furthermore, they claim that the management entirely disregards their civil rights. One of the workers formulates his complaints in the following way: â€Å"I wonder why all the glory always goes to the top tier of the company, while the workers at the bottom, who sacrificed our health and our time with the family, are always maltreated and ignored?† (Good Electronics, 2010, unpaged). Their choice is very limited: they can either comply with managerial demands or leave the company and lose the only source of revenue. The most unfortunate thing is that domestic laws do not protect these people properly, and the only group that can really support them is international companies which collab orate with Young Fast Optoelectronics. The management of YFO does want to such partners, and they will, certainly pay attention to the opinion of these companies. Discussion Overall, this case exemplifies one of the greatest moral dilemmas, faced by modern companies which now can operate in globalized environment. On the one hand, the erasure of national borders and absence of any restrictions on free trade give them a good opportunity to maximize their profits. Yet, very often this improved performance is based on the exploitation of workers, who are put almost in subhuman conditions. As it has been shown in the previous section, several ethical approaches can be used to solve this dilemma, and we can say neither Utilitarianism nor Kantian ethics can give a loophole for justifying these policies; this includes each of the stakeholders: the local government, the management of YFO, and international partners of this company. The most dangerous thing is that there are very few ways of influencing these people. Still, it should be borne in mind that nowadays such notion as ethical consumerism is becoming more and more popular. It means that modern customers can boycott the products of those manufactures which do try to meet the employees’ demands and even exploit these people as it is done by the management of YFO (Guido, 2009). The key issue is that consumers, who live in advanced countries, may refuse to buy the mobile phones, produced at the factories of Young Fast Optoelectronics. This will certainly have an adverse effect the bottom line of many companies that are closely connected with Young Fast Optoelectronics. Therefore, it is possible for us to say that this exploitation of Taiwanese workers is not only immoral, but it may also be economically unsound. This is why Taiwanese government as well as the partners of YFO should force the management to hear the voices of employees and address their needs. Conclusion The application of various ethical th eories to organizational conflict helps to better understand the reasoning and policies of private businesses. More importantly, the use of these theories can assist us in finding solutions the conflicts which occur between the management of the company, its employees, and the government. The case that has been analyzed illustrates that the globalized economy gives almost unlimited freedom to private organization. Unfortunately, this freedom is frequently abused by the management, as it is done in Young Fast Optoelectronics. Ethical consumerism and responsible corporate behavior are the only methods of affecting such businesses and forcing them to improve the working conditions. References Balonze J. 2006. Debating Globalization. London: Gyan Publishing House. Benner. E.2009. Machiavelli’s ethics. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Gensler. H. Spurgin E. Swindal J. 2004. Ethics: contemporary readings. London: Routledge. Good Electronics. 2010. â€Å"Taiwanese electronics workers fight for their rights†. Accessed from Guido. G. (2009) Behind Ethical Consumption: Purchasing Motives and Marketing Strategies for Organic Food Products, Non-Gmos, Bio-Fuels. NY: Peter Lang. Sullivan. R. 1994. An introduction to Kant’s ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Trade Union of Young Fast Optoelectronics. 2010 Fact Sheets Regarding the Struggle of Young Fast Optoelectronics Trade Union (YFOTU). Retrieved from: This essay on The Young Fast Optoelectronics Company’s Conflicts was written and submitted by user Falc0n/SamW1ls0n to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Mathematically Modelling Basketball Shots Essays

Mathematically Modelling Basketball Shots Essays Mathematically Modelling Basketball Shots Essay Mathematically Modelling Basketball Shots Essay The manager of a professional basketball team is having a tough decision in choosing which of his two top scorers this season are better at free-throw shots. The final decision will go towards picking the team for Saturdays Cup Final match. On a training session one week before the match the coach decides to go all out and bring some mathematical genii in to model a situation where Lee Grimes and Dominic Aspbury, the goalscorers, will shoot at the basketball net. The mathematical genii are students from Cambridge and are benefiting from this opportunity in that they will be able to show evidence of coursework for their final exam. Their coursework will be using their abilities to collect data and test the appropriateness of a probability model on a real situation whilst the coachs aim will be to pick the better of the two players for the big game. If the random variables X and Y count the number of independent trials before the event, having a probability p, occurs then X and Y have geometric distributions: P ( X = r ) = q r 1 p where r = 1,2,3, X~G ( p ) and Y~G ( p ) I will define X as being the number of shots required before Lee shoots a basket. Therefore, Y is defined as the number of shots required before Dom shoots a basket. I will be attempting to see if X and Y have geometric distributions by taking samples of X and Y. The populations are the infinite range of shots capable from the two throwers taken in a discrete time period under varied conditions at the same level of skill. This is impossible to create so the coursework will have to involve sampling, therefore not producing results representative of the whole population. For this coursework I can not take random samples because it will not be possible to recreate due to the infinite choices of shot which could occur e.g. fatigue levels, mood type, improvement of skill level throughout the sampling etc. all could differ. I will record a sample of X by asking Lee to shoot a number of baskets and hence work out the relative frequency of success p. This result will allow me to model X as X~G ( p ) . Next I will record a sample for Y by asking Dom to shoot a number of baskets so that another value for the relative frequency of success p can be calculated. I can use the result to model Y as Y~G ( p ) . The conditions I will have to use are going to be as similar as possible to gain independent and identical shots. This will involve: * Five practice shots beforehand so that the feel of shooting is apparent a warm up before starting. * The shots being taken from the same free-throw position which is fifteen feet away from the base of the net and perpendicular to the back line. * The same type of shot being used using one hand to steady the ball and one to project the ball through the air. Same arms used each time. * The weather conditions being similar. In the sports hall there should be no significant alteration of the environment. * Each shot being taken one after the other to gain results, which will be under the most similar conditions. * When the shot is taken; a score implies one basket, a no score implies try again until you succeed. * Continue until the sample of eighty is reached and record all results If the data is successful I may be able to produce a reliable geometric model of the population from the sample enabling me to predict population parameters with greater confidence. Using the parameters I should be able to compare the populations by considering sample parameters. I have chosen a geometric model because it is an infinite distribution requiring discrete random variables and is able to accommodate the infinite range of shots that may be required to score a basket. The sum of all the probabilities will equal one (a probability density function). If X and Y have a geometric distribution, the distribution should look like this: The sample size shall be 80 as a large sample size makes the geometric distribution as accurate as possible for testing purposes. It also allows me to use the chi squared test on the model to check if there is any evidence to suggest that one thrower is better than the other at various critical levels. Assumptions that I am making to allow the model to work are that the trials are: * Identical: The factors are exactly the same. This provides a fair test and is a property of the geometric distribution. * Independent: The trials are not affected by the previous trial. The geometric model states that the events must be independent. No distribution could possibly account for the infinite amount of variables/influences that could occur e.g. improving skill as more shots are scored, fatigue etc. The variable would be different in each case. The five practice shots will make the distribution more geometric as it will warm up the performer beforehand so that they get used to the feel of shooting. * Have two outcomes score a basket or no score. * Repeated to gain the sample size Modelling the situation with a geometric distribution Let X be the number of attempts before a basket is scored for Lee: Probability of scoring a basket: P(score) = sample size/total number of shots = 80/269 = 0.2973977695 This implies X~G( 0.297 ) X can be modelled as a geometric distribution with a probability of scoring first time equal to 29.7% (1 d.p.) Finding Prob(X=r) Therefore P (no score) = 1 P (score) = 1- 0.2973977695 = 0.7026022305 Using the formula: P(X = r) = qr-1p where r = 1, 2, 3: q = probability of not scoring p = probability of scoring P( X = 2) = 0.7026022305 x 0.2939776957 = 0.2065493847 P( X = 3) = 0.7026022305(3-1) x 0.2939776957 = 0.14512205844 Finding Expected Frequency Expected Frequency for (X = r) = Prob (X=r) x sample size Therefore Expected Frequency for (X = 1) = 0.2973977695 x 80 = 23.791821 Expected Frequency for (X = 2) = 0.2065493847 x 80 = 16.7161869 Let Y be the number of attempts taken before a basket is scored for Dom: Probability of scoring a basket: P(score) = sample size/total number of shots = 80/345 = 0.231884058 This implies Y~G ( 0.232 ) Y is geometric with a probability of scoring first time equal to 0.232 (3 d.p.). This result states also that there is a 23.2% chance of scoring on the first attempt and I aim to model these results by a geometric distribution. Therefore P(no score) = 1 0.231884058 = 0.768115942 Therefore for Dom: P (Y = 2) = 0.768115942 x 0.231884058 = 0.1781138416 P (Y = 3) = 0.768115942(3-1) x 0.231884058 = 0.1368120813 Expected Frequencies will be: (Y = 1) = 0.231884058 x 80 = 18.55072464 (Y = 2) = 0.1781138416 x 80 = 14.24910733 Chi Squared Distribution The chi-squared distribution can be applied to measure the goodness of fit for the geometric models. It will examine the goodness of the model by considering the number of possible outcomes of the events and will analyse the validity of the assumptions. Thevalue will be expected to be small to suggest that the model fits the real distribution. A large value would suggest that the model is unlikely to be correct so I will use a 10% critical region to test it. * If thevalue lies within the critical region then, assuming the model is correct, it would mean that there is less then 10% chance of a result as high as this occurring. We reject the model as a consequence and conclude insufficient sampling etc. * Alternatively, if the value lies outside the critical region, the result is valid and there is a larger possibility of the value being what it is. The model is assumed to be correct and the model is accepted. Conclusion would be to state that the statistical model is appropriate to the situation and the assumptions are correct. In the tables, the expected and observed frequencies were calculated but how close together are the values? The closer the observed value to the expected value the more accurate the geometric model will be. The goodness of fit statistic is: where O = Observed Frequency E = Expected Frequency To find the best measure of goodness of fit, add up all values for each statistic and compare with the 2 probability distribution tables. The chi squared test should only be used if the expected frequency of a cell is more than five which means some of the groups are going to have to be combined. This enables the chi-squared distribution to be better approximated. The total frequency of expected frequencies should also be over 50. This makes the chi squared test work at a more accurate level. Lees chi squared test Using the equation : As we can see by the result = 7 To analyse the result with the chi squared test the number of degrees of freedom have to be established following this procedure: Degrees of Freedom = Number of Cells Number of Constraints In Lees table there are seven cells. The number of constraints is two because: o A sample size of eighty is one constraint: The sample has to be eighty. o The probability is another constraint: The mean of the model has to equal the mean of the data so we used the data to work this value out. * Therefore: Degrees of Freedom = 7 2 = 5 * at 10% critical level i.e. prob ( ) = 0.9 * but observed value of = 7.478504913 * 7.478 is less than 9.236 * therefore, the value is not in the critical region (result taken from probability distribution table) The value is not in the critical region implying the model is significant enough to use. Lees results fit into the geometric distribution model and therefore it is a good model for Lees data. There is evidence to suggest that the assumptions are true and therefore we accept the assumptions as part of the geometric model. See graph above for explanation of what the results show. Doms Chi Squared Test Using the equation : As we can see by the result = 5.694287179 * Degrees of Freedom = 8 2 = 6 * at 10% critical level i.e. prob ( ) = 0.9 * but observed value of = 5.694287179 * 5.694 is less than 10.645 * therefore, the value is not in the critical region (result taken from probability distribution table) Doms results fit into the geometric model, as the value is not in the critical region of 10%. We can assume that the geometric model was a good model to use for his results. We can again accept the assumptions as there is no evidence to suggest they do not fit into the geometric distribution. See graph above for an explanation of what the results shows. Both results are comfortably in the geometric distribution proving that they are reliable results/models and the assumptions made are valid. We can adapt Doms model so that five degrees of freedom can be used giving the same accuracy as Lees result. I am predicting that it wouldnt affect the results because there would need to be a dramatic increase in the value for it to be of any significance. Both performers have had their results analysed at the same number of degrees of freedom and there was no significant difference. It shows no alteration for the final conclusion and still no evidence is available to reject the models. Both results have shown X and Y can be modelled by the geometric distribution. By knowing this I could produce confidence intervals for any parameters I estimate from the distributions. However at this stage I will calculate the relevant parameter for this piece of coursework. I will estimate the expected number of shots required by Lee and Dom to score a basket. Expected Mean Values To find out the expected mean value for a geometric distribution it is defined as the sum to infinity of: all the probabilities, which are multiplied by the value of X (in Lees case), Y (in Doms case). This can be simplified conveniently to 1/p where p is the probability of scoring when X = 1 For Lee the expected mean value would be E[X] = = 3.3625 (4 d.p.) For Dom the expected mean value would be E[Y] = (4 d.p.) These results demonstrate the average amount of shots it takes until the performer scores. Lee, having a lower expected mean value than Dom, is shown to be the better free-thrower as he takes an average of approximately three shots to score, unlike four shown in Doms case. The total number of shots can be a very rough indicator of who seems to be the better free thrower. Lee took 269 shots and Dom accomplished 345 shots to score 80 baskets. Does this imply that Lee is more accurate? According to the expected mean values and the probabilities of scoring for each model it reinforces Lees success where all three tests are in his favour. There is a much higher chance now of Lee being picked for the game on Saturday. A factor of the investigation was whether taking constant shots at the basket improved performance. This may happen because training has occurred and the brain is learning from past mistakes. The question being asked is, were the five practice shots enough practice to enable an independent model to be produced or should it not have occurred? Raw data results were recorded in two stages; first 40 and second 40 and it suggests small decreases in many of the cells for 2nd 40 especially in Doms case. Lower values of X or Y become more frequent in the 2nd 40. This complicates results and so is a factor to consider if the coursework is completed again. The decreases in the higher X or Y values and the increases in the smaller X or Y values suggest evidence of fatigue, boredom, frustration etc. I can say now that skill level did not increase during the collection of the sample size but what is more likely to have occurred is the opposite. The explanation for Dom being more tired, bored or frustrated is probably because he shot a total of 345 baskets whereas Lee completed his in 269 shots. Two parent populations (X and Y) have been tested against geometric probability models and it so happens that they fit very snugly into them. Therefore, we can apply the knowledge that counting the amount of times before a basket is scored is modelled very well using a geometric distribution. There may be only two populations but they both show noticeable differences in their results and remain well within the statistical model. I will assume that it is highly probable for most other populations to fit into the geometric distribution on the basis that my models are very appropriate for the investigation. I have modelled the basketball situation in a real life atmosphere and the model was successful. Even though the situation is based on a theoretical distribution it was modelled appropriately. The club should now prepare for Lee having the role of free-thrower in this Saturdays cup final and accepting the fact that Dom is on the subs bench for the start of the game The data sampling was very organised and strict but not random. To have taken a random sample would mean: * Watching a random sample of club games throughout the season * Watching a sample of free-throws made by the performers from the game * Calculate who is most accurate A problem with this is time, as it would take a year to go through just one season, therefore it is impractical and illogical. The physical form of the player should also alter throughout the season so a random sample of more than one season would have to be made. A much better way is to watch all training sessions and take a general overview of who supplies the most points in miniature matches from free throws. This gives more of a view of consistency than on the day performance but during game situations the performer will be thinking more logically. A sample of eighty straight baskets is tedious and will affect performance. Modifications * Use a longer time period. The performers were rushed to collect their sample size within two hours as a result of school timetabling and so one of them had to rush his last twenty shots. * Use the same time period i.e. one performer did it one day and the other completed it the next day. Conditions may have been different and morale, energy etc may be variated for both Dom and Lee * Use foot-mats on the floor so that it indicates an exact position for the feet to stand instead of just using the line. This may be an insignificant difference but to improve the coursework it is better than no difference at all. * Using the same basketball. Half way through the sample collection the basketball was lost leaving us the trouble of having to use another basketball maybe of different weight, age etc and possibly affecting the results Improvements * I would like to calculate confidence intervals for both expected values (X and Y) to determine my degree of confidence in Lee being a better freethrower. * I would also like to be able to see if my result E[X] = E[Y] was statistically significant

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Shakespeare Research Paper Topics

Shakespeare Research Paper Topics Shakespeare Research Paper Topics Shakespeare research paper topics: how to make the right choice? You are studying in college or university and received the task to write research paper on Shakespeare? You do not know how to do this or you are completely lost in Shakespeare research paper topics? Then the present article is just for you. You are free to support people around you and understand the specifics of writing; in this case you will succeed in the process of writing the research paper. You are to know that the process of writing the research paper may be quite time consuming for people and it is necessary to take into account the difficulty of Shakespeare research paper topics. While writing the research the person is free to remember that the research presupposes not only the description of the material, but also the searching of some interesting facts and different points of view on this or that subject. Shakespeare research paper topics: Connection with literature Due to the fact that the research pape r is on literature, its role in this process is extremely high and the person is free to combine their knowledge in literature and of the literary work with the research done on this basis. The choice of Shakespeare research paper topics is high and the person should simply choose the proper evaluation of facts described in the text and use as many literary sources as possible. While working on the research on literature, the person is free to know some hints that may be helpful:The content of literary work and the proper evaluation of characters and facts described, The history of the literary work and the basis on which it was written, The biography of the author may be also helpful in this case, as it can provide the basis for a choice of Shakespeare research paper topics, Different stylistic devices may be helpful in order to reveal the nature of literary work and the writing style of the writer, The person must differentiate greatly about the significance of events in the text, as this can play the crucial role for Shakespeare research paper topics. Shakespeare research paper topics: the role of thorough research When the person is receiving the task to write the research it is necessary to be ready for the present task properly in order to implement it correctly. The first thing to do is to read the literary work itself, as in other case you will not be able to cite the material from the text and show the proper knowledge of Shakespeare research paper topics, The person should search the internet and libraries in order to find the newest books helpful in this written assignment.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

How has Iranian Cinema Destabilised the Political Structure Dissertation

How has Iranian Cinema Destabilised the Political Structure - Dissertation Example From the research it is clear that Iranian cinema has survived complicated transformation and oppressive restrictions that corresponds with the tumultuous socio-political experiences of the country itself. Emerging from one restrictive regime and entering yet another era of restriction, Iranian cinema has suffered through various degrees of oppression ranging from rejection by Islamic clerics on the grounds that Iranian films are instruments of Western corruption to simple rejection on the grounds that Iranian films do not portray Iran in an idealistic light. At the same time, Iranian cinema has also been utilized by Islamic clerics and regime leaders as a propaganda tool to influence popular thought and behavior. Despite the socio-political challenges, Iranian cinema has gained a reputation characterising it as among the world’s â€Å"most innovative national cinemas†. The success of Iranian cinema is largely attributed to its advanced artistry and its socio-political narratives. Contemporary and more especially, post-revolutionary film-making in Iran presents a mirror image of daily life and social and political issues in Iran. Thus the new Iranian Cinema has been described as capturing and sharing an â€Å"open image† of Iranian society and politics. Thus it has been argued that contemporary Iranian cinema has essentially humanized the people of Iran for both national and international audiences. ... nema 31 The Green Movement 42 Arab Spring 45 Bibliography 48 Filmography 50 Introduction Iranian cinema has survived complicated transformation and oppressive restrictions that corresponds with the tumultuous socio-political experiences of the country itself. Emerging from one restrictive regime and entering yet another era of restriction, Iranian cinema has suffered through various degrees of oppression ranging from rejection by Islamic clerics on the grounds that Iranian films are instruments of Western corruption to simple rejection on the grounds that Iranian films do not portray Iran in an idealistic light. At the same time, Iranian cinema has also been utilized by Islamic clerics and regime leaders as a propaganda tool to influence popular thought and behaviour (Gregory, 2008). Despite the socio-political challenges, Iranian cinema has gained a reputation characterising it as among the world’s â€Å"most innovative national cinemas† (Blankson & Murphy, 2007, p. 14 4). The success of Iranian cinema is largely attributed to its advanced artistry and its socio-political narratives (Ridgeon, 2000, p. 3). Contemporary and more especially, post-revolutionary film-making in Iran presents a mirror image of daily life and social and political issues in Iran. Thus the new Iranian Cinema has been described as capturing and sharing an â€Å"open image† of Iranian society and politics (Chaudhuri & Finn, 2003, p. 38). Thus it has been argued that contemporary Iranian cinema has essentially humanized the people of Iran for both national and international audiences (Zeydabadi-Nejad, 2010, p. 1). It can therefore be argued that the humanized image of the people of Iran by the aesthetic and realistic representations of social and political issues have worked together to destabilise